Medical Marijuana ProCon.org HOME | BACK

Site Sources

  1. Source Totals - all sources, ranked by stars --
    separated into Pro, Con and Neutral categories
  2. Individual Sources
  3. Organizational Sources
    1. Media Organizations
    2. Non-Media Organizations
  4. Credibility Ranking

I. Source Totals

The distribution of Pro, Con and Neutral sources on our site is illustrated in the charts below. These positions are in response to our core question: "Should marijuana be a medical option now?"

Each has been assigned a theoretical credibility rating ranked by stars (with five being the highest), and they are distributed among the Pro, Con or Neutral sources as follows:

Stars Pro Neutral Con Totals
Five 3 51 0 54
Four 37 17 14 66
Three 24 20 6 48
Two 5 51 0 56
One 108 67 42 216
Totals 177 206 62 445

II. Individual Sources


Individual Sources

Name
Rating
Pos.
1. Abrams, Donald, M.D. P
2. Alsup, William, M.P.P., Hon. N
3. Anonymous N
4. Armentano, Paul P
5. Bachs, Liliana, M.D. C
6. Barr, Bob, J.D. C
7. Barthwell, Andrea, M.D. C
8. Beada, Richard, J.D. P
9. Bennett, Sandra C
10. Bennett, William J., Ph.D. C
11. Benowitz, Neal L., M.D. N
12. Benson, John A. Jr., M.D. N
13. Blakemore, Colin, Ph.D., ScD P
14. Borden, David P
15. Bourne, Peter G., M.A., M.D. P
16. Brook, David W., M.D. C
17. Brookoff, Daniel, M.D., Ph.D. C
18. Burkman, Lani, Ph.D. C
19. Bush, George W. C
20. Byrne, Al P
21. Califano, Joseph A., Jr., LL.B. C
22. Campbell, James S., M.D. P
23. Carmona, Richard, M.D., MPH. C
24. Carpenter, William, Jr., M.D. N
25. Carter, Gregory T., M.D. P
26. Cavanaugh, Jay, Ph.D. P
27. Charuvastra, Anthony, M.D. N
28. Clark, Peter A., S.J., Ph.D. P
29. Cohen, Peter, Ph.D. P
30. Crestani, Francesco, M.D. P
31. Cummings, Elijah (D-MD) C
32. Cunningham, Chinazo, M.D. P
33. DeNoon, Daniel N
34. Doblin, Rick, Ph.D. P
35. Robert L. DuPont, M.D. C
36. Dworkin, Barry, M.D. C
37. Earleywine, Mitch, Ph.D. P
38. Editor N
39. Edlin, Brian R., M.D. P
40. Ehrlich, Robert L. Jr., J.D. P
41. Eidelman, William, M.D. P
42. Elders, Joycelyn, M.D. P
43. ElSohly, Mahmoud A., Ph.D. N
44. Ettinger, David S., M.D. P
45. Feinstein, Diane C
46. Friedmann, Peter, M.D., M.P.H. N
47. Fry, Marion P., M.D. P
48. Gettman, John P
49. Gieringer, Dale, Ph.D. P
50. Goldstein, Avram, M.D. P
51. Goode, Eric, Ph.D. P
52. Gore, Albert Arnold, Jr. P
53. Gorter, Robert, M.D., Ph.D. P
54. Gottfried, Richard, J.D. P
55. Grant, Igor, M.D. N
56. Grinspoon, Lester, M.D. P
57. Hadorn, David, M.D., Ph.D. P
58. Hall, Wayne, Ph.D. N
59. Hamm, John, M.D. P
60. Hanson, Glen R., D.D.S., Ph.D. N
61. Henningfield, Jack E., Ph.D. N
62. Henry, John, M.D. N
63. Herer, Jack P
64. Herkenham, Miles, Ph.D. N
65. Hinchey, Maurice P
66. Houston, Aaron P
67. Hutchinson, Asa, J.D. C
68. Israelski, Dennis M., M.D. P
69. Iversen, Leslie, Ph.D., F.R.S. P
70. Jensen, Claudia, M.D. P
71. Johnson, Eric P
72. Jones, Reese T., M.D., Ph.D. C
73. Joy, Janet E., Ph.D. N
74. Kampia, Robert P
75. Kane, John L., Jr., Hon. P
76. Kassirer, Jerome P., M.D. P
77. Katzenstein, David A., M.D. P
78. Kelly, John V. (R-NJ) N
Name
Rating
Pos.
79. Killian, Robert K., M.D. P
80. Kleiman, Mark, Ph.D. P
81. Klein, Daniel, Ph.D. N
82. Kohl-Welles, Jeanne, Ph.D. P
83. Kozinski, Alex, Hon. N
84. Ksir, Charles, Ph.D. N
85. Latimer, Paul R., M.D., Ph.D. N
86. Lederman, Sidney N., Hon. N
87. Leno, Mark P
88. Levine, Neal P
89. Lewis, Sheena E.M., B.Sc., Ph.D. N
90. Macleod, John, Ph.D. N
91. Malenka, Robert C., M.D., PhD N
92. Markowitz, Jonathan, M.D. C
93. Mathre, Mary Lynn, R.N. P
94. Maughs, Rick P
95. McCain, John Sidney, III C
96. McDermott, James A., M.D. P
97. Mirken, Bruce P
98. Mikuriya, Tod, M.D. P
99. Miron, Jeffrey A., Ph.D. P
100. Morral, Andrew, Ph.D. N
101. Murdoch, Alison, M.D. N
102. Nadelmann, Ethan, J.D., Ph.D. P
103. Nadrowski, Leon, M.D. C
104. Nahas, Gabriel, M.D., Ph.D. C
105. Nofziger, Lyn P
106. Nolin, Pierre Claude, LL.L. N
107. O'Keefe, Karen, Esq. P
108. O'Reilly, Bill P
109. Oxford, John S., M.D. N
110. Palmberg, Paul F., M.D., Ph.D. P
111. Paul, Ron, M.D. P
112. Pazdur, Richard, M.D. N
113. Pelosi, Nancy P
114. Perrine, Daniel M., Ph.D. N
115. Petro, Denis, M.D. P
116. Piomelli, Daniele, Ph.D. N
117. Randall, Robert C. P
118. Ray, Oakley, Ph.D. N
119. Roques, Wayne C
120. Rubin, Saul P
121. Rusche, Sue C
122. Russo, Ethan, M.D. P
123. Saag, Michael S., M.D. P
124. Sanchez-Ramos, Juan R., M.D. P
125. Sartor, R. Balfour, M.D. C
126. Scannell, Kate, M.D. P
127. Schuel, Herbert, PhD. N
128. Sherer, Steph P
129. Shulgin, Ann P
130. Sidney, Stephen, M.D., M.P.H. P
131. Silverberg, Ivan J., M.D. P
132. Solowij, Nadia, Ph.D. N
133. Souder, Mark C
134. Steinfeld, Jesse L., M.D. P
135. Stroup, R. Keith, J.D. P
136. Sullum, Jacob P
137. Tashkin, Donald P., M.D. N
138. Thomas, Chuck P
139. Tinelli, Eugene, M.D., Ph.D. P
140. Tozzi, Jim, Ph.D. N
141. Ungerleider, J. Thomas, M.D. P
142. Ventura, Jesse P
143. Vizzi, Ean, Esq. N
144. Voth, Eric A., M.D., F.A.C.P. C
145. Walters, John P. C
146. Watson, Stanley J. Jr., M.D. N
147. Weglein, Daniel M., M.D. P
148. Weil, Andrew, M.D. P
149. Williams, Montel P
150. Witton, John, M.D. N
151. Wolfe, Sidney, M.D. N
152. Wright, Karen, M.D. C
153. Young, Francis L., Hon. P
154. Zeese, Kevin B., J.D. P
155. Zimmer, Lynn, Ph.D. P
156. Zimmerman, Bill, Ph.D. P

III. Organization Sources


1. Non-Media Organization Sources

Name
Rating
Pos.
1. Accident Analysis & Prevention N
2. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica N
3. Addiction (Journal) N
4. AIDS Survival Project P
5. AIDS Action Council P
6. Alzheimer's Research Trust (U.K.) N
7. Alzheimer's Society (U.K.) N
8. American Alliance For Medical Cannabis P
9. American Academy of Ophthalmology C
10. Amer. Assoc. for the Advancement of Science N
11. American Association Health Freedom P
12. American Association of Retired Persons N
13. American Civil Liberties Union P
14. American Cancer Society C
15. American Heart Association N
16. American Journal of Epidemiology N
17. American Journal of Ophthalmology N
18. American Journal of Public Health N
19. American Journal Resp. Cell N
20. American Journal of Resp. & Critical Care Med. N
21. American Medical Association (AMA) C
22. AMA - House of Delegates N
23. American Medical Student Association P
24. American Nurses Association P
25. Americans for Medical Rights P
26. American Public Health Association P
27. Americans for Safe Access P
28. American Society of Addiction Medicine C
29. Annals of Internal Medicine N
30. Archives of General Psychiatry N
31. Australasian Centre for Policing Research C
32. Australian Medical Association C
33. Australian Nat'l Task Force on Cannabis C
34. Bay Area Physicians Human Rights P
35. Bayer N
36. Being Alive San Diego P
37. Boulder County AIDS Project P
38. Brain N
39. British Columbia Compassion Club Society P
40. British Epilepsy Association P
41. British Journal of Psychiatry N
42. British Lung Foundation C
43. British Medical Association P
44. British Medical Journal N
45. California Academy of Family Physicians P
46. California Highway Patrol N
47. California Medical Association P
48. California Narcotics Officers' Association C
49. California NORML P
50. California Nurses Association P
51. California Pharmacists Association P
52. California Society Addictive Medicine C
53. California State Attorney General P
54. Can. Consortium, Investigation Cannabinoids N
55. Canadian Medical Association P
56. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers Journal N
57. Cannabis Action Network P
58. Cannabis M.D. P
59. Cell and Tissue Research N
60. Centers For Disease Control N
61. Center for Government Studies N
62. Center Medical Cannabis Research N
63. Center for Problem Solving Courts P
64. Center Science Public Interest N
65. Center for Substance Abuse Research N
66. Center Addiction & Substance Abuse C
67. Center for Problem Solving Courts P
68. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics N
69. Coalition Compass. Access P
70. Colorado Nurses Association P
71. Common Sense Drug Policy P
72. Continuing Medical Education N
73. Council on Illicit Drugs P
74. Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America C
75. Department of Justice C
76. Deutsche AIDS-Hilfe P
77. DRC Net P
78. Drug Enforcement Administration C
79. Drug Free America Foundation C
80. Drug Policy Alliance P
81. Drug Policy Forum - Hawaii P
82. Drug Policy Forum - Texas P
83. Drug Sense/MAPP P
84. Drug Watch International C
85. Drug Free Kids C
86. Epilepsy Ontario (Canada) C
87. Erowid P
88. EU Monitoring - Drug Addiction N
89. Eur. Jrnl. of Pharmacology N
90. Family Research Council C
91. Fed. American Scientists P
92. Florida Medical Assoc. P
93. Food & Drug Admin. (U.S.) C
94. Gastroenterology N
95. Gay/Lesbian Medical Assoc. P
96. General Acct. Office (U.S.) N
97. Granite Staters for Medical Marijuana P
98. Gray Panthers P
99. Gut N
100. GW Pharmaceuticals N
101. Hawaii Nurses Association P
102. Dept. Health & Human Services N
Name
Rating
Pos.
103. House of Lords Select Comm. P
104.   Institute of Medicine N
105.   Inst. on Global Drug Policy C
106. Intl. Assoc. Cannabis as Med. P
107. Intl. Communications Research N
108. Intl. Jrnl. of Drug Policy N
109. Jrnl. of Amer. Medical Assoc. N
110. Journal of AIDS N
111. Jrnl. of Cannabis Therapeutics P
112. Jrnl. of Clinical Invest. N
113. Jrnl. of Clinical Pharmacology N
114. Jrnl. of Forensics Sciences N
115. Journal of Medical Ethics N
116. Jrnl. of Molecular Psychiatry N
117. Journal of Neuroscience N
118. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs N
119. Jrnl. of Public Health Pol. N
120. Jrnl. of National Cancer Inst. N
121. Kaiser Permanente P
122. The Lancet N
123. L.A. Cannabis Resource Cntr P
124. Lymphoma Foundation P
125. Maine AIDS Alliance P
126. MJ Anti-Prohibition Project P
127. Marijuana Policy Project P
128.Med. MJ. Patients' Union P
129. Medical Cannabis Research N
130. Merck Manual N
131. Merril Lynch N
132. Military Medicine N
133. Michigan Cancer Foundation N
134. Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease N
135. Movement Disorders Journal N
136. Multidisciplinary Assoc. Psychedelic Studies P
137. Multiple Sclerosis N
138. Muscular Dystrophy Assoc. P
139. Nat'l Assoc. for Colitis & Crohn's Disease N
140. National Association of People with AIDS P
141. National Cancer Institute P
142. Natl. Comm. MJ & Drug Abuse N
143. Natl. Drug Strategy Network N
144. Natl. Eye Institute C
145. Natl. Families in Action C
146. Natl. Inst. Allergies C
147. Natl. Inst. of Dental Research C
148. Natl. Inst. on Drug Abuse C
149. Natl. Institute of Health N
150. Natl. Inst. of Mental Health N
151. Natl. Inst. of Neurological Disorders C
152. Natl. Mult. Sclerosis Society C
153. Natl. Org. Reform MJ Laws P
154. Natl. Prog. Substance Abuse Deaths (U.K.) N
155. Nature N
156. Nature Reviews: Cancer N
157. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology N
158. Nebraska AIDS Project P
159. Neurology N
160. Neuropharmacology N
161. New England Jrnl. of Medicine P
162. New Mexico Nurses Assoc. P
163. New York AIDS Coalition P
164. New York Nurses Assoc. P
165. No. Carolina Nurses Assoc. P
166. N.W. Center Health & Safety C
167. Office Natl. Drug Control Policy C
168. Ohio Patients' Network P
169. O'Shaughnessy's P
170. Partner. Drug Free America C
171. Patients out of Time P
172. Physicians Comm. for Responsible Medicine N
173. Physician's Desk Reference N
174. Proceedings National Academy of Sciences N
175. Project Inform P
176. Psychemedics Corporation N
177. Psychiatry Research N
178. Rand Corporation N
179. Research Triangle Institute N
180. San Francisco AIDS Found. P
181. San Mateo Cnty Med. Cntr P
182. Students Sensible Drug Policy P
183. Substance Abuse Librarians & Info. Specialists N
184. Subst. Abuse & Ment. Health N
185. Surgeon General's Office N
186. Syracuse Behav. Healthcare P
187. Texans For Medical Marijuana P
188. U.K. Cannabis Campaigner's P
189. United Kingdom Parliament N
190. U.S. Hemp Food Assoc. P
191. U.S. Pharmacopoeia C
192. Unimed Pharmaceuticals N
193. Union of Reformed Judaism P
194. Unitarian Universalists P
195. United Nations C
196. Virginia Nurses Association P
197. Virginia Tech Survey Research N
198. Whitman-Walker Clinic P
199. Wisconsin Nurses Association P
200. Wo/Men's Alliance Med. MJ. P
201. Women of Reformed Judaism P
202. Women's Health Network P
203. World Health Organization N


2. Media Organization Sources

Name
Rating
Pos.
1. ABC News N
2. Agence Fran´┐Żaise Presse (AFP) N
3. Alternet N
4. Arkansas Gazette N
5. Arlington Research Group N
6. Associated Press N
7. Auburn Journal N
8. Baltimore Sun N
9. Bangor Daily News N
10. Beldon, Russonello & Stewart N
11. Binder Research N
12. British Broad. Corp. (BBC) N
13. Budapest Sun N
14. Cahners Research N
15. Canadian Broadcasting Corp. N
16. Cannabis Culture P
17. CBS News N
18. Chamberlain Research N
19. Chico Enterprise-Record N
20. Chico News & Review N
21. CNN N
22. Concord Monitor N
23. Consumer Reports Magazine P
24. Creative Broadcast Services P
25. Crimson White N
26. Cybercast News Service N
27. Daily Telegraph (U.K.) N
28. Denver Post N
29. Denver Rocky Mntn. News N
30. Detroit Free Press N
31. Eureka Times-Standard N
32. Fairbank, Maslin, Maullin N
33. Field Poll N
34. Gallup Organization N
35. Globe and Mail (U.K.) N
36. Gonzales/Arscott Research N
37. Guardian Unlimited (U.K.) N
38. Harris Interactive N
39. High Times Magazine P
40. Independent, The (U.K.) N
41. Institute for Social Research N
42. Join Together Online N
43. KOA Radio N
Name
Rating
Pos.
44. Lake, Snell Perry & Assoc. N
45. Liberty Magazine N
46. Los Angeles Times P
47. Lucas Organization (Polling) N
48. Luntz Research N
49. Mason-Dixon Polling N
50. Medical Post N
51. Miami Herald N
52. Nation Magazine N
53. New York Times N
54. New Yorker Magazine N
55. New Zealand Herald N
56. News 4 (Colorado) N
57. News 9 (Colorado) N
58. Oakland Tribune N
59. Orange County Register N
60. Pew Research Center N
61. Press-Democrat N
62. Press-Enterprise N
63. QMark Research & Polling N
64. Research & Polling, Inc. N
65. Reuters N
66. Sacramento Bee P
67. Sacramento News & Review N
68. San Bernardino County Sun N
69. San Diego Union N
70. San Francisco Chronicle P
71. San Francisco Examiner N
72. San Jose Mercury News N
73. Scrip World Pharm. News N
74. Social Research Laboratory N
75. Teengrowth.com C
76. Time Magazine N
77. Times, The (U.K.) N
78. Times of India N
79. United Press International C
80. Univ. Ark. Survey Research N
81. Washington Post N
82. WCSH 6 TV News (Maine) N
83. WebMD N
84. West Hawaii Today N
85. Wired Magazine N
86. Zogby International Polling N

IV. Credibility Ranking

Evaluating the credibility of one person's statements against another is difficult if not impossible, especially without knowing each person's background, training, or education.

We have therefore built this credibility ranking chart to help differentiate the theoretical credibility of the various sources on our site. We note however that sometimes, for example, a 1-star source () may be better informed or more credible than even a 5-star () source, and that a 5-star government report or peer-reviewed study can be inaccurate.

The following sets out how we rate sources of the pro/con responses to the question: "Should marijuana be a medical option now?"

Ranking
Description
Reports
Government statistics, reports and peer-reviewed medical studies or articles
Key Experts
Physicians [We believe physicians are the "key experts" in the medical marijuana debate because the issue is thought by many to be ultimately based on the medical value and risks of marijuana, and Physicians, with their training and clinical work, should (at least in theory) have the best knowledge of marijuana's medical value and risks.].

Experts
PhD's and JD's (lawyers) with significant post-doctoral involvement in medical marijuana issues; judges who have presided over medical marijuana cases.

Credible Publications
National and international mainstream publications which present unbiased reporting, such as media news (television, radio, internet) and non-profits whose reporting can generally be considered unbiased.

Organization/VIP/Other
Those individuals and organizations actively involved in the medical marijuana debate, but do not fit into the other star categories.

Anonymous - Name Withheld by Request
Probably due to the emotional/political/legal nature of this issue, the respondent requested anonymity. To increase the depth of our site we accept anonymous postings, but such postings of course make it impossible to judge a respondent's credibility.

We would appreciate your comments on how to make this ranking clearer or more useful.

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